PURPORTED RISK FACTORS
- Reproductive age
- Mean age at diagnosis is 25 to 29 years.
- Adolescents are more likely to have Mullerian duct anomalies or cervical or vaginal obstruction.
- Postmenopausal women are more likely to be on estrogen replacement therapy.
- Socioeconomic status: suggestion of greater risk for upper socioeconomic status (difference possibly from health care-seeking behaviors)
- Family history: primarily first-degree relatives (mother, sister, first cousin), although no clear inheritance pattern
- Menstrual characteristics: shorter cycles (< 27 days), longer flow
(> 7 days), and greater menstrual pain
- Weight: peripheral predominance of body fat among affected women under 30 years of age (i.e., risk inversely related to waist-to-hip and waist-to-thigh ratios)
- Height: greater risk for tall women (> 166 cm)
- Reproductive history: history of infertility and impaired fecundity (e.g., t spontaneous abortion)
FACTORS DECREASING RISK.
1.Strenuous exercise: physical exercise, especially if begun early and practiced regularly
- Cigarette smoking: early and regular use. (Careful interpretation of these preliminary findings is warranted, especially in light of health hazards associated with smoking.)