Hydrochlorothiazide is considered to be a diuretic drug of high efficiency. It violates the ion reabsorption of sodium, chloride and water in the distal nephron tubules, increases the removal of potassium, magnesium, bicarbonate ions, keeps the calcium ions in the body. The diuretic effect occurs within 2 hours, reaches a maximum after 4 hours and lasts up to 12 hours. The preparation helps to reduce high blood pressure. In addition, it causes a reduction in polyuria in patients with diabetes insipidus (the action of this mechanism hasn’t completely clarified yet). In some cases, the drug lowers intraocular pressure in glaucoma.
Hypertension, edema syndrome of different genesis (chronic heart failure, fluid retention in obesity, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure), diabetes insipidus, glaucoma (subcompensated form).
Dosage and administration
It should be set individually. At the beginning of the treatment the patients suffering from hypertension are prescribed dose of 25-50 mg daily. Usually it is taken once in the morning. For maintenance treatment it is prescribed 25 mg / a day or in a day. In the case of edema the patient is prescribed to get a dose of 25-100 mg daily. It is possible to use the drug daily, but often it is prescribed in 1-2 days. In diabetes insipidus, during the early treatment the dose is 100 mg in 2-4 receptions, then the dose reduction is possible.
How to use Hydrochlorothiazide
This medication should be taken by mouth and as a rule prescribed by doctor. Usually the patients take it once daily in the morning and it doesn’t with or without food. It is recommended to avoid taking it within 4 hours before bedtime to prevent having a bad night because of urinate. The dosage may be different and is usually based on patient’s medical condition and response to the corresponding treatment. This medication has to be used regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. If you are worried that you are able to forget about using it, take Hydrochlorothiazide at the same time every day. It is required to continue taking these pills even if you are feeling well. Remember that the great amount of people with high blood pressure do not feel sick. Inform your doctor if your condition doesn’t improve or in the case it worsens (for example, blood pressure readings are increasing).
Before taking this medicine, it is necessary to inform doctor or pharmacist if you are suffering from any kind of allergy. This product could possibly involve inactive ingredients, which can cause any allergic reactions or other problems. Ask pharmacist for more detailed information. Before starting to use this drug, inform doctor or pharmacist about your medical history, especially in the case of: lupus, liver disease, kidney disease, gout, diabetes. These pills may make you dizzy. Do not drive a car, avoid using any kind of machinery, or doing any activity which requires alertness. At first make sure that you can perform such activities without any troubles and safely. Limit using alcoholic beverages. Severe diarrhea, sweating or vomiting may increase the risk for a serious loss of body water (dehydration). Report your doctor in the case of prolonged diarrhea or vomiting. In order to prevent dehydration, it is necessary drink plenty of fluids except those cases when doctor prescribes otherwise. If you have diabetes, pay attention that hydrochlorothiazide is able to affect your blood sugar levels. So it is recommended to check the blood sugar levels regularly. Sometimes a doctor needs to adjust diabetes medication, exercise program, or prescribe a diet. This drug is as a rule decreasing potassium levels. So it will be better for the patient to take more food containing potassium. For example, bananas or orange juice. Or sometimes people use salt that substitutes containing potassium. A doctor can prescribe you a special potassium supplement. Taking this medication you will become more sensitive to the sun. So avoid prolonged sun exposure, sunlamps and tanning booths. When outdoors it is recommended to use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing. In the case of any surgery or dental procedures, don’t forget to inform doctor or dentist about the products you use (involving prescription or nonprescription drugs and herbal products). The patients who are older can be probably more sensitive to the drug effects, and they may suffer from dizziness. If you are pregnant, these pills should be used only in that case when they are when clearly needed. The doctor will inform you about all the risks and benefits. Remember that this drug comes into breast milk, but it doesn’t harm a nursing infant.
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, fatigue, dizziness, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, rarely – neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, allergic dermatitis, visual disturbances, pancreatitis.
Severe renal dysfunction, hepatic insufficiency, severe gout and diabetes, pregnancy (I trimester), lactation, hypersensitivity to sulfonamides.
When prescribing this medication it is necessary to pay high attention to the patients suffering from gout and diabetes. During the prolonged treatment of this drug the person should keep a diet rich in potassium. The patients suffering from renal failure require systematic monitoring of plasma concentrations of electrolytes and creatinine clearance.