Without any doubt, oral contraceptives are the most convenient and therefore the most-selling contraceptives. Inspirer and organizer of the invention pill, which allows protecting from unwanted pregnancy, is an American biologist Gregory Pincus. The first robin in the history of hormonal oral contraceptive pill was “Enovid,” created by Pinkus in 1960.
The main components of oral contraceptive steroids are artificially created, similar in structure to the female hormones that are produced by the ovaries, estrogen and progesterone.
In our time, the content of hormones in birth control pills reduced compared to the first oral contraceptive. And this in turn has reduced its number of side effects. And now, oral contraceptives are reasonably safe means of protection from unwanted pregnancy. The main function of oral contraceptives is to suppress ovulation – reducing the possibility of an egg to mature and go into the body cavity. In addition to the main action, oral contraceptives have a number of other advantages: preventing failure of the menstrual cycle, and pain during it, the prevention of gynecological diseases, the restoration of reproductive function, the treatment of acne, and, finally, ease of use, lack comfortably in place during intercourse.
Today the market of oral contraceptive products is quite rich. Try to understand. Birth control pills are distinguished by the number of hormones in their composition.
* Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing estrogen and progestin (the analog of the hormone progesterone) may be monophasic, i.e. the proportion of estrogen and progestin in each pill is the same. Monophasic contraceptive pilsl found most suitable for most women. Biphasic and triphasic pills differ in different amounts of estrogen and progestin.
* Progestin preparations contain progestin only (minipill). The effectiveness of these pills a little lower, combined, however, they have other advantages improper combination contraceptives. Mini-pill does not affect the milk supply, reduce the risk of thrombosis does not cause a headache, do not cause increased pressure. They are suitable for young mothers and women of mature age, and suffering from frequent headaches. Mini-pill fit highly organized ladies (they must take each day at the same time).
* Postcoital drugs – aimed at preventing unintended pregnancy after unprotected sex. Postcoital contraceptive use, if after sex spent no more than 72 hours. The content of these hormones in contraceptives is very high, which may cause undesirable effects such as bleeding, weakness, nausea. Therefore the use of postcoital drugs is strongly discouraged and is only suitable in cases of emergency. At this point you can use and combination therapy, but be sure to pay attention to the quantitative hormone levels: 50 mg – the first 72 hours are taken two pills 12 hours later another 2, 35 mg – the first 72 hours are taken four tablets in 12 hours more 4. In the presence of progestin preparations (mini-pill) in the first 48 hours to take 20 pills every 12 hours another 20.
In order to find the right pill go to a gynecologist. The doctor will choose the appropriate drug, taking into account the individual characteristics of the organism. In cases of discomfort, any pain, difficulty breathing, rash or yellowness of the skin, increasing the pressure, as well as visual impairment or impending surgery, you should immediately consult a doctor.
One of the most popular combined oral contraceptives is Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol.
How to start taking pills from the first package Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol?
If last month hormonal contraceptives have been used, start taking the drug Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol from the first day of the cycle, i.e. the first day of menstrual bleeding.
If you decided to take drug Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol after other COCs, combined with contraceptive vaginal ring or patch, start taking the drug Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol next day after you drink the last active pill (the last tablet of the active ingredients) from the current packaging of hormonal contraceptives.
If the packaging of your previous contraceptive contains the inactive pills, throw them and continue to receive the first package of the drug Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol, without interruption.
If you have previously used a combined contraceptive vaginal ring or patch, start taking the drug Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol daily removal of the ring / patch or follow the advice of a doctor.
In the transition from a purely progestagen contraceptive method (minipill, injection, implant or intrauterine system with the release of progestogen (CPA)) you can take the drug Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol with purely progestagen method on any day (with the implant or IUD – the day of their removal; with the injection method – the day on which will be the next scheduled injection), but in all cases within the first 9 days of drug administration Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol you should use additional contraceptive measures (e.g., condoms).
Advantages of Levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol:
* High contraceptive efficacy.
* Good tolerance.
* Availability and ease of use.
* Adequate control of the menstrual cycle.
* Reversibility (full recovery of fertility during the 1-12 months)
* Safety for the majority of somatically healthy women (especially for non-smoking women under age 35)
* Remove the “fear” in front of an unwanted pregnancy.
* The ability to “delay” (using monophasic preparations) regular withdrawal bleed response during exams, competitions and recreation (by omitting the 7-day interval, and continue taking the drug in the following packaging method should be discontinued for 3 days before the desired menstrualnopodobnoe reaction is not recommended to resort to the “deferral” of more than 3 cycles in a row).
* Ability to use mono- drug as the “emergency” contraception (see below).
The benefits of oral contraception should also be considered therapeutic (non-contraceptive), the effects of combined estrogen-progestin preparations, namely:
# Regulation of the menstrual cycle (mild algodismenorei, giperpolimenorei, ovulate pain, certain symptoms of premenstrual syndrome),
# Prevention of benign and malignant ovarian tumors, endometrial cancer, cystic mastitis, benign tumors and mammary glands (use this drug for four years or more to 50% reduces the risk of these diseases),
# Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis,
# Prevention of uterine fibroids, endometriosis, functional ovarian cysts.