Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a spectrum of inflammatory disorders
of the upper genital tract, including a combination of any of the following:
- Endometritis, salpingitis, tuboovarian abscess, or pelvic peritonitis.
It results from an ascending lower genital tract infection.
It is not related to obstetric or surgical intervention.
- Incidence or prevalence.
There are an estimated 600,000 to 1 million cases annually in the United States.
Disease is diagnosed in 2% to 5% of women seen in STD clinics.
PID is the most common cause of female infertility and ectopic pregnancy.
Indirect and direct costs attributed to PID were estimated to be in excess of $4 billion in 1990.
- Risk factors.
- Adolescent sexually active females under age 20 (1:8 risk)
- Nonwhite race
- Previous episode of gonococcal PID I
- Multiple sexual partners (more than two partners within 30 days)
- Vaginal douching (associated with 2x increased risk of PID)
f Use of IUD (Users have a threefold to fivefold increased risk of developing acute PID.)
- Risk reduction: Other contraceptives reduce risk of PID.
Diaphragms with spermicide